In Australia, values-based management has formed the basis of heritage practice through the use and evolution of the Australia ICOMOS Charter for Places of Cultural Significance (better known as the Burra Charter). In values-based management systems, heritage planning, decisions, and actions rest on a compre-hensive understanding of the heritage values. Not only does this process re- quire that the articulation of values be the foundation of all policies and decisions; it also implies the need for problem solving to address emerging issues, ruling out approaches based on typological templates. The involvement of all associated communities and stakeholders is essential for success, since this is the means of ensuring that all the values and issues are identified and that they form the basis of management solutions.
This paper looks at the history and state of play for values-based management of Indigenous cultural-heritage places from an Australian perspective. It discusses the interactions between Indigenous cultural-heritage practices and the development of the Burra Charter and concludes with a discussion of contemporary issues in this field of heritage work, including rights and intangible heritage issues and the need for integrated considerations of nature and culture.
The imbalance of the number of sites listed as the cultural landscape in the World Heritage List is one of the major issues since cultural landscape was adopted in the World Heritage Convention in 1992. Though the List is supposed to adequately elicit the heritage diversity in the world, most of cultural landscapes in the List as well as the Tentative List are situated in Europe and North America region. To fill this gap, it would be useful to focus the analysis on the regions other than Europe and North America which would provide insights and understanding for the future strategy.
This paper points out that one of the major factors on preparation for the nomination which influences the imbalance in the list is the political and economic stability in each state party. As for the cultural lands cape, this situation calls for attention from international action on heritage safeguarding. Moreover, the imbalance raises the question whether the existing guideline on cultural landscape identification is practical for the state parties. The landscape types proposed in this paper aims to add depth to the understanding on the existing categorisation of cultural landscape in the Convention. It focuses on the landscape setting based on the existing cultural landscapes in the World Heritage List. Seven cultural landscape types in both rural and urban setting landscape are discussed.